Diumenge, 23 de juny del 2024

Troben restes animals que confirmen que l’homo neandertal va ocupar la cova de Simanya

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La cova Simanya del Parc Natural de Sant Llorenç del Munt i l’Obac a Matadepera (Vallès Occidental) va ser un lloc de campament per a l”homo neandertal’. Així ho han confirmat els arqueòlegs que han participat en la campanya i que va finalitzar divendres passat. L’equip estava format per investigadors de la Universitat de Barcelona i l’institut Català de paleontologia i Evolució Social (IPHES) i de la UAM. Durant tres setmanes, s’han recuperat ossos d’animals, fogars i eines que confirmen que s’hauria utilitzat durant estades curtes entre 45.000 i 60.000 anys enrere.

 

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Segons el responsable del projecte, l’investigador d’excavacions paleolítiques, Juan Ignacio Morales, entre les restes d’animals hi ha cérvols i senglars, amb evidències d’haver estar consumits per humans. Aquest espai, a més, també era un lloc d’hivernació d’animals, com ara ossos i cabra pirenaica, tal com demostren les restes recuperades. Els investigadors tenen la hipòtesi que aquests últims van ser portats com a preses per animals carnívors, com ara grans felins com el lleopard, però no s’ha pogut confirmar encara. Antigament en aquesta zona també hi vivien hienes i lleons.

 

Enguany també s’ha revisat el material d’anteriors campanyes. L’última va ser la del 2019, quan es va descobrir ocupació humana durant el paleolític, amb preservació de registres més antics. El principal problema de la cova, especialment a l’entrada, és la gran erosió produïda per l’aigua que ha fet variar la composició dels sediments al llarg dels anys. Concretament, la galeria d’entrada fa gairebé 100 metres de fondària amb un segon ramal que surt a l’esquerra, al pas de l’Oca, que es divideix en dues galeries més. En períodes plujosos s’hi formen moltes basses d’aigua que en dificulten la visita.

Restes d’animals localitzats a la cova Simanya del Parc Natural de Sant Llorenç del Munt i l’Obac

Excavacions històriques a la cova

La cova Simanya és la cavitat més gran del massís de Sant Llorenç, amb 372 m de recorregut i una entrada gran i fàcilment accessible de més de 10 metres de boca. Hi ha algunes descripcions d’aventurers que van entrar a la part més fonda, “amb descripcions gairebé màgiques que corroboraven llegendes locals de presència de dracs o de ciutats subterrànies”. La primera exploració espeleològica científica es va fer l’any 1911. També va ser excavada arqueològicament els anys 1911 i 1930.

 

L’any 1911 s’hi van trobar ceràmiques d’època neolítica, ibèrica i medieval. Als anys trenta del segle passat es van dur a terme excavacions però amb criteris arqueològics “poc científics”.

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